Baracoa is the capital city of the municipality which bears the same name in the Oriente province, Cuba.
Located on the north coast of the eastern end of the island, it was founded in 1512, which makes it the first city to be colonised. It was built from the first moment to be a future city. Its founder was the advanced conqueror Diego de Velázquez. It also hosts the first town hall and it was the first capital of the island. The first church was built here and it was to be made into a cathedral in 1518 with its own bishop by Papal Bull issued by Pope Leo X, the great Pope of the Renaissance. Its first bishop was Fray Bernardino de Mesa, and its second bishop was Fray Juan Garcés, but they never managed to take office. The third bishop, Fray Juan White, relocated it to Santiago de Cuba and the bishopric became extinguished in 1522 by the Bull issued by Pope Adrian VI. This change was based on Velázquez´s relocation to Santiago de Cuba together with his main fellows. Only about 50 inhabitants would remain in the city. However, Baracoa was always unfortunately frequented by smugglers, buccaneers, pirates and people of that fatal sort for the cities.
The port pier was built in 1803, and the customs were established and authorised to make foreign trade by Royal Decree on May 8th, 1859 and in July of the same year the deputy government was created. In 1862, the first public lighting service was established. Before 1950, it already had various industries and a small but increasing volume of foreign trade. Due to a lack of regular and easy connections to the rest of the island, the National Aviation Company set up a regular service at an affordable price.